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The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has just recommended that all pregnant women be screened for gestational diabetes. For health care professionals, the document is here.
In pregnancy, the baby and the placenta induces a higher of sugar level in the mother, to ensure that the baby will have enough sugar for use and growth. Normally, the mother’s pancreas will work harder to overcome this by making more insulin. However, sometimes that fails and blood sugar starts to rise, causing gestational diabetes. The main problem of gestational diabetes is that the baby has too much sugar and so grows to too big a size, sometimes more than 4kg. This may make giving birth difficult.
Gestational Diabetes was last reported in Singapore to affect 13.8% of all pregnant mothers in 1988.
Fortunately, the Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) Trial cleared showed that proper treatment to normalize the blood sugar helps to prevent complications . For healthcare professionals, the paper is here.
Because effective treatment protects the mother and baby, all women in the US are now encouraged to have an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In Singapore, women who are high risk are encouraged to have the OGTT. These risk factors are: obesity, family history of diabetes, previous gestational diabetes, and previous birth to a baby heavier than 4kg.
In pregnancy, diet and exercise is key to control the blood sugar. A lot of pregnant women can control their blood sugar with simple changes to their diet by decreasing refined carbohydrates such as white sugar, white rice, rice-based noodles (bee-hoon) and white bread.
However, in severe cases insulin will be needed. Oral medication are generally not advised for pregnant mothers.
To know more, here is a video shot by Leonny Atmadja from Our Channel.